WATER POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL

One of the most important natural resources on planet, water has existed for a very long period. In reality, the water that we drink today has existed in some capacity since the time of the dinosaurs.
More than two thirds of the earth’s surface is covered in water. The amount of water dispersed throughout the oceans, rivers, lakes, and streams comes to just over 1 octillion litres (1,260,000,000,000,000,000,000 litres).
Although there is a lot of water there, only about 0.3% of it may be used for human use. That number has decreased as commercialization and industrialization have advanced. Water contamination has also been caused by a number of factors, including old and ineffective techniques, ignorance, and numerous other occurrences.

What is pollution of water?

The polluting of water bodies is referred to as water pollution. Water pollution occurs when industrial and agricultural effluents contaminate water bodies such as rivers, lakes, oceans, groundwater, and aquifers. All lifeforms that depend on water, whether directly or indirectly, suffer when it is polluted. Years may pass before you notice

The key causative of water pollution in india are :

i) Urbanisation

ii ) Deforestation

iii) Industrial effluents

iv ) Social and Religious Practises

v) Use of Detergents and Fertilizers

vi) Agricultural use of Insecticides and Pesticides

Water Pollution – A Modern Epidemic

The poisoning of water bodies by hazardous chemicals is one of the main causes of water pollution. As can be seen from the aforementioned example, discarded plastic bottles, cans, and other garbage damage aquatic bodies. These lead to water contamination, which hurts the entire environment in addition to people. These pollutants release toxins that move up the food chain and finally reach humans. In most instances, the result is harmful only to the local population and species, but it can also have an effect on a larger scale.

The oceans receive over 6 billion pounds of trash each year. Other types of undesired materials are discharged into different water bodies in addition to industrial effluents and untreated sewage. These can include everything from oil spills to nuclear waste, the latter of which can make large areas inhabitable.

Effects Of Pollution In Water

The type of contaminants present and their concentration determine the impact of water pollution. In determining the amounts of pollution, the location of water bodies is also crucial.

Urban areas’ surrounding water bodies are very polluted. This is the outcome of industrial and commercial facilities discharging trash and hazardous materials.
Aquatic life is significantly impacted by water pollution. It alters their behaviour and metabolism, which results in disease and eventual death. Dioxin is a toxin that affects many processes, including reproduction, unchecked cell development, and cancer. Fish, chicken, and meat all bioaccumulate this compound. Before reaching the human body, toxic chemicals move up the food chain.

The food chain may be severely impacted by the effects of water contamination. The food chain is upset. Some hazardous compounds, such as cadmium and lead, can continue to disrupt at higher levels after entering the food chain through animals (fish eaten by animals and humans).
Humans are impacted by pollution and are susceptible to diseases like hepatitis when faeces are present in water sources. Infectious diseases like cholera and others can always spread due to subpar drinking water treatment and unsuitable water.
Water contamination has the potential to significantly alter, destroy, and destructure the environment.

A factory in Minamata City, Japan, started discharging methylmercury-containing industrial effluent into the nearby bay and the ocean in 1932. Methylmercury is extremely harmful to both humans and animals, and it can lead to a variety of neurological conditions.

Its negative consequences were not immediately evident. But all changed when fish and crabs in Minamata Bay began to bioaccumulate methylmercury. The local populace then caught and eaten these impacted species. The negative effects of methylmercury were soon becoming obvious.

Initially, animals such as cats and dogs were affected by this. The city’s cats would often convulse and make strange noises before dying – hence, the term “dancing cat disease” was coined. Soon, the same symptoms were observed in people, though the cause was not apparent at the time.

Animals like cats and dogs were initially impacted by this. The phrase “dancing cat illness” was created as a result of the city’s cats frequently convulsing and making weird noises before passing away. Though the cause was not immediately clear, people soon began exhibiting the same symptoms.

The symptoms of acute mercury poisoning in other affected individuals included ataxia, muscle weakness, loss of motor coordination, harm to speech and hearing, among others. In extreme situations, paralysis took place, then a coma and death. Before the government and the organisation could formally acknowledge these illnesses and fatalities, nearly 36 years had passed.

Since then, the Japanese government has developed a variety of water pollution control measures to reduce such environmental

Contaminating the Ganges

Pollution in Ganga River

Some groundwater, lakes, and rivers have been declared unusable. The River Ganges is the sixth most polluted river in the world and is located in India. This is hardly surprising considering that there are numerous adjacent enterprises that discharge waste into the river. Additionally, religious practises like funerals and cremations close to the coast add to pollution. In addition to its effects on the environment, this river poses a major concern to public health since it can spread illnesses like cholera and typhoid.Some of the unique animals are also going extinct due to Ganges pollution.

The critically endangered Ganges River shark is a member of the Carcharhiniformes group. Another endangered species of dolphin found in the tributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers is the Ganges River dolphin.According to a survey, by the year 2026, 4 billion people will experience a water deficit. Approximately 1.2 billion people throughout the world do not currently have access to clean, potable water or adequate sanitation. Additionally, it is anticipated that water-related problems cause close to 1000 children to pass away annually in India. Although groundwater is a significant supply of water, it is sadly nevertheless subject to pollution. Water pollution is a significant social issue that must be addressed right away.

Measures to Reduce Water Pollution

Numerous techniques can be used to reduce water pollution on a bigger scale. It is preferable to treat sewage waste before release rather than discharging it into aquatic bodies. By doing this, the original toxicity can be reduced, and the water body itself can breakdown and render harmless any compounds that are still there. Water can be reused in sanitary systems and agricultural areas if secondary treatment has been done to it.

The Water Hyacinth is a very unique plant that has the ability to absorb harmful compounds in solution, including cadmium and other similar elements. Establishing these in areas vulnerable to these types of pollutants will significantly lessen the negative effects.

Precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and coagulation are a few chemical techniques that aid in the management of water pollution. Reusing, reducing, and recycling whenever possible will go a long way toward addressing the consequences of water pollution on an individual basis.

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