Let us now think a little more about diseases. There are many tissues in the body. These tissues make up physiological systems or organ systems that carry out body functions. Each of the organ systems has specific organs as its parts, and it has particular functions. So, the digestive system has the stomach and intestines, and it helps to digest food taken in from outside the body. The musculoskeletal system, which is made up of bones and muscles, holds the body parts together and helps the body move.

When there is a disease, either the functioning of one or more systems of the body will change for the worse. These changes give rise to symptoms and signs of disease. Symptoms of disease are the things we feel as being ‘wrong’. So we have a headache, we have cough, we have loose motions, we have a wound with pus; these are all symptoms.
These indicate that there may be a disease, but they don’t indicate what the disease is. For example, a headache may mean just examination stress or, very rarely, it may mean meningitis, or any one of a dozen different diseases.
Signs of disease are what physicians will look for on the basis of the symptoms. Signs will give a little more definite indication of the presence of a particular disease. Physicians will also get laboratory tests done to pinpoint the disease further.

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