Crop Production Improvement and Management

Management and Improvement of Crop Production


One can appreciate how challenging it must be to create a plan to boost crop yields that would benefit everyone equally given the vast geographical variation witnessed in India. Varied regions of India have different types of soil, varying amounts of rainfall, varying amounts of groundwater reserves, and of course, varying degrees of industrialization and access to fertilisers. In a nation like India that relies heavily on agriculture, increasing agricultural productivity is a crucial goal to achieve.

Between 1960 and 2004, food grain output in India increased by a factor of four, but the area of arable land increased by just 25%. The outcomes have not been great despite the Green Revolution and several plans and rules that have been put in place to guarantee greater yield and more promising agriculture. This needs to change since India continues to rely heavily on agricultural production for economic growth—not just to maintain the nation’s population but also to satisfy the enormous export demands.

Prior to discovering the specifics of “how to increase crop yield? ”

Let’s examine what crop production means. “Crop yield is a measurement of the amount of agricultural output produced per square metre of land.”

This was accomplished using a variety of farming strategies, which can be categorised into three stages.

Enhancing crop varieties by selecting the appropriate seeds for planting

Enhancing agricultural yield through crop plant cultivation

Protecting the crop from damage through crop protection management

Crop Variety Improvement

i) Finding a crop variety that boosts agricultural production is the first difficulty in improving crop yields.

ii) Selecting different strains of crops for characteristics like disease resistance, fertiliser responsiveness, product quality, and high yields will be possible through breeding.

iii) Crop types can integrate valuable traits through hybridization.

iv) the introduction of a gene that would give the necessary trait to boost crop output.

The objective is to enhance high-yield crop types.

a) To increase crop productivity per acre in order to increase yield.

b) Obtaining crop products of a higher grade (quality factor may vary from crop to crop). For instance, wheat’s baking quality, the protein content of pulses and oil, and the preservation of fruits and vegetables are all taken into account.

c) To cultivate biotic and abiotic resistant crops that can withstand harsh environmental conditions like drought, salt, waterlogging, heat, cold, and frost

d) The time it takes to develop a crop from planting to harvest is lowered because the shorter the period, the more cost-effective the variety, allowing farmers to grow several harvests in a season and lowering agricultural production costs.

e) Because different environmental circumstances have no impact on crop productivity, a wider range of adaptable crops are grown.

f) Can be grown crops with desirable agronomic features

Fodder crops should have tall, abundant branching plants.

Dwarfism is a desired cereal characteristic.

Crop Production Optimisation
Farmers are able to utilise various farming strategies and technology because of the availability of money or other financial resources. Higher yields and inputs are correlated with one another.

Different levels of production processes are possible. They comprise “no cost” production procedures, “low cost” production practises, and “high cost” production practises.

Management of Nutrients


The nutrients that plants require for growth are provided by the air, water, and soil.

There are sixteen essential nutrients that are necessary for plants to thrive.

Oxygen and carbon are provided by air. The source of hydrogen is water.

The additional thirteen nutrients are provided to plants by soil. There are two types of nutrients: macronutrients, which are needed in greater amounts, and micronutrients, which are needed in smaller amounts.

Nutrients Supply by Air , Water and Soil
Source Nutrients
Air Oxygen , Carbon
Water Hydrogen , Oxygen
Soil Macronutrients – Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Potassium , Calcium , Magnesium , Sulphur
Micronutrients _ Iron , Magnesium , Boron , Zinc , Copper , Molybadenum , Chlorine

There are sixteen essential nutrients that are necessary for plants to thrive.

Oxygen and carbon are provided by air. The source of hydrogen is water.

The additional thirteen nutrients are provided to plants by soil. There are two types of nutrients: macronutrients, which are needed in greater amounts, and micronutrients, which are needed in smaller amounts.

These nutrient shortages have an impact on the physiological functions of plants, such as growth, reproduction, and susceptibility to disease. It is possible to cultivate the soil to boost output by adding these nutrients in the form of manure and fertilisers.

Irrigation

Drip Irrigation
Sprinkle Irrigation
Flood Irrigation


India’s agriculture productivity suffers for a number of reasons, one of which is irrigation issues. India is fortunate to have fertile land, but this would be useless without sufficient irrigation. While some regions of the nation get adequate rain, others don’t. Furthermore, rainfall has become incredibly variable as a result of recent climate change. In fact, there are times when rain falls just before harvest, spoiling the farmers’ laborious efforts and rendering the crops unfit for consumption.

Making ensuring that India received better irrigation channels was one of the key aims of the Green Revolution. While there have undoubtedly been significant gains, crop output needs to be improved with much more urgency.

Cropping Methods
Three different cropping patterns can be employed for the greatest possible benefit. As follows:

(A) combining crops

(B) alternating crops

(C) Crop revolving

Mixed cropping refers to the simultaneous cultivation of two or more crops on the same piece of land.

Mixed cropping

For instance, combine wheat with mustard, wheat with gram, or groundnuts and sunflower.

Intercropping is the practise of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same land in a certain manner.

Inter cropping

Example: groundnut + sunflower, wheat + gram or wheat + mustard.

When two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern is known as Intercropping.

For Example:  finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia).

Crops are chosen such that they have particular nutrient requirements. This ensures that the nutrients supplied are used to their full potential and also stops pests and illnesses from spreading to all plants in a field that are growing the same crop.

The planting of different crops in a pre planned succession on a piece of land is known as crop rotation. The crop rotation is done for different crop types, depending on the period.

Crop rotation refers to the practise of planting various crops on a plot of land in a predetermined succession. Depending on the season, different crop varieties undergo crop rotation.

Manage Crop Protection
The field crops are infested by a variety of insects, insect pests, and illnesses. Weeds and pests can damage crops to the point where most of the yield is lost if they are not managed at the correct time.

Steps to repair the damage
i) Weed control in cultivated fields during the early phases of crop growth is crucial for a successful harvest.

ii) Insect protection is necessary because:

a) They removed the stem, leaf, and root.

b) They remove the sap from the plant’s cells in various plant sections.

c) They pierce stems and fruits, which compromises the crop’s health.

iii) actions to fix the damage
For a successful harvest, weed control in cultivated fields is essential throughout the early stages of crop growth.

iv) Protection from insects is required because:

The root, leaf, and stem were taken out.

In various plant sections, they drain the sap from the plant’s cells.

They damage the crop’s health by puncturing stems and fruits.

iv) Grain storage is crucial since losses are substantial at this stage due to insects, rats, fungus, and mites in the storage location. Through effective handling and organised warehouse management, such factors can be managed.

Summary

Various farming strategies, which are broken down into three stages, are used to increase crop output. Agricultural production enhancement, in which crop plants are developed, is where the best seeds for sowing are selected through breeding and hybridization. The final step is crop protection management, which involves safeguarding crops from pests, weeds, and other damages. It includes nutrient management, irrigation, and cropping patterns.

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